O Sistema Espanhol de Cuidados de Longo Prazo: Desdobramento, Processos de Reestruturação e Desafios Futuros

  • Esther Albesa Jové Universidad de Barcelona
Palavras-chave: sistema espanhol de cuidados de longo prazo, medidas de austeridade, iimpacto da crise económica

Resumo

Este artigo examina em profundidade o caso do processo de reestruturação do sistema espanhol de cuidados de longo prazo (LTCS) e as suas deficiências devido ao “choque” económico de 2008, e os seus desafios futuros. Centra-se em quatro dimensões de análise: natureza e princípios, acesso, prestação e organização de serviços, gestão e financiamento. E três níveis: trabalhadores e receitas dos serviços públicos, reformas legislativas, e impacto social e institucional da crise. Os resultados mostram um duplo processo de expansão-contração: o primeiro, durante a implantação do sistema (2008-10), seguido de uma segunda fase (2010-17) centrada na contenção de custos, no reforço da natureza familiar do sistema e num processo de re-familiarização e de re-mercadorização. Apesar de a Lei da Dependência ter contribuído para uma “mudança paradigmática” ao modificar a natureza da anterior política de cuidados, a partir da segunda fase as deficiências do sistema tornaram-se óbvias devido a uma escassez de recursos e de questões organizacionais. Os mecanismos destinados a reduzir o sistema estavam a restringir os critérios de acesso e a atrasar a implantação do sistema, bem como a reduzir a prestação de serviços e o pagamento de benefícios pecuniários. Além disso, a ampla provisão de benefícios pecuniários implicou uma re-familiarização e uma re-mercadorização do novo LTCS espanhol, contribuindo para a proliferação de um mercado de cuidados não regulamentado.

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Publicado
2020-12-31
Como Citar
Jové, E. (2020). O Sistema Espanhol de Cuidados de Longo Prazo: Desdobramento, Processos de Reestruturação e Desafios Futuros. Interações: Sociedade E As Novas Modernidades, (39), 9-40. https://doi.org/10.31211/interacoes.n39.2020.a1
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