Arielism Versus Cosmopolitanism: Brazilian Reaction to 9/11/01 as Cultural Narrative and Identity Work

  • Laura Robinson SCU and Harvard Berkman Klein Center
Palavras-chave: Arielismo, Brasil, Identidade, Terrorismo, Discurso, Interação digital

Resumo

Esta pesquisa examina o trabalho da identidade vis-à-vis o discurso brasileiro sobre os acontecimentos de 11 de setembro de 2001. Os dados são provenientes de brasileiros e expatriados participantes de um fórum de discussão digital organizado pelo jornal O Estado de São Paulo. Ao discutir os eventos de 11 de setembro de 2001, os brasileiros também entendem o que significa ser brasileiro e o que significa ser humano. Como mostram os dados, os brasileiros enquadram as suas reações com base em entendimentos mais amplos do mundo social. As duas posturas mais dominantes vêm de brasileiros que adotam o que pode ser chamado de posturas arielistas e cosmopolitas. Além disso, um pequeno grupo de expatriados brasileiros entra na discussão como autoproclamado americanófilo. Ao examinar essas dinâmicas, vemos que as identidades resultam do processo de construção de identidade melhor enquadrado por uma perspetiva construtivista social. Nesses três casos, as identidades emergem da interação, engajamento e reação a estruturas de identidade concorrentes. Por meio das interações de diálogo em curso, os participantes brasileiros implicitamente fazem declarações sobre as suas autoconcepções e visões do lugar do Brasil no mundo durante este evento histórico. Significativamente, as posturas complementares e de oposição em reação ao 11/9/01 continuam a persistir, quase vinte anos após os ataques, nas estruturas ideológicas em torno das identidades nacionais que circulam atualmente no Brasil e nos EUA. Dessa forma, o discurso de 2001 prenuncia o abismo político iminente entre direita e esquerda no Brasil e nos Estados Unidos e fornece um impulso para pesquisas futuras.

Biografia Autor

Laura Robinson, SCU and Harvard Berkman Klein Center

Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology at Santa Clara University and Faculty Associate at the Harvard Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society. She earned her PhD from UCLA, where she held a Mellon Fellowship in Latin American Studies and received a Bourse d’Accueil at the École Normale Supérieure. In addition to holding a postdoctoral fellowship on a John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation funded project at the USC Annenberg Center, Robinson has served as Visiting Assistant Professor at Cornell University and the Chair of CITAMS (formerly CITASA) for 2014-2015. Her research has earned awards from CITASA, AOIR, and NCA IICD. Robinson’s current multi-year study examines digital and informational inequalities. Her other publications explore interaction and identity work, as well as new media in Brazil, France, and the U.S.

Referências

Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.

Beck, U. (2000). The cosmopolitan perspective: Sociology of the second age of modernity. British Journal of Sociology, 51(1), 79-105.

Beiner, R. (1999). (Ed.). Theorizing Nationalism. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Brubaker, R., & Cooper, F. (2001). Beyond identity. Theory and Society 29, 1-47.

Calhoun, C. (Ed.) (1994). Social theory and the politics of identity. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Fine, G. (1993). The sad demise, mysterious disappearance, and glorious triumph of symbolic interactionism. Annual Review of Sociology, 19, 61-87.

Fisher, K. (1997). Locating frames in the discursive universe. Sociological Research Online 2(3), 88-111.

Fominaya, C. F. (2007). Autonomous movements and the institutional left: Two approaches in tension in Madrid’s anti-globalization network. South European Society and Politics 12(3), 335-358.

Fominaya, C. F., & Barberet, R. (2013). Defining the victims of terrorism: Competing frames around victim compensation and commemoration in post-9/11 New York City and 3/11 Madrid. In Athina Karatzogianni (Ed.),Violence and war in culture and the media (pp. 129-146). London: Routledge.

Fominaya, C. F.. (2010). Collective Identity in Social Movements: Central Concepts and Debates. Sociology Compass, 4(6), 393–404.

Fominaya, C. F. (2020). Social movements in a globalized world. London: Red Globe Press.

Fominaya, C. F., & Feenstra, R. A. (2020). Routledge handbook of contemporary european social movements. London: Routledge.

Gamson, W. (1992). Talking politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and Self-Identity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Goodwin, J., Jasper, J., & Polletta, F. (2000). The return of the repressed: The fall and rise of emotions in social movement theory. Mobilization: An International Quarterly, 5(1), 65-83.

Hall, S. (1996). Who Needs ‘Identity’? In Stuart Hall & Paul du Gay (Eds.),Questions of cultural identity Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Harvey, D.C. (2017). Gimme a pigfoot and a bottle of beer: Food as cultural performance in the aftermath of hurricane Katrina. Symbolic Interaction, 40(4), 498-522.

Jenkins, B. (2000). French political culture: homogenous or fragmented? in William Kidd & Sian Reynolds (Eds.), Contemporary French cultural studies. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kleingeld, P., & Brown, E. (2002). Cosmopolitanism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2002 Edition). https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2012/entries/cosmopolitanism/

Lakoff, G. (2002). Moral politics: How liberals and conservatives think. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Lasmar, J. M. (2020). When the shoe doesn’t fit: Brazilian approaches to terrorism and counterterrorism in the post-9/11 era. In Michael J. Boyle (Ed.), Non-Western responses to terrorism. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.

MacDonald, P. K. (2018). America First? Explaining Continuity and Change in Trump’s Foreign Policy. Political Science Quarterly, 133, 402- 434.

McPherson, A. 2003. Yankee No! Anti-Americanism in U.S.-Latin American Relations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Robinson, L. (2005). Debating the events of September 11th: Discursive and interactional dynamics in three online fora. Journal of computer-mediated communication, 10(4), JCMC10412.

Robinson, L. (2008). The moral accounting of terrorism: Competing interpretations of September 11, 2001. Qualitative Sociology, 31(3), 271-285.

Robinson, L. (2009). Brazilian-US Communication Forum| Cultural Tropes and Discourse: Brazilians, French, and Americans Debate September 11, 2001. International Journal of Communication, 3(16), 652-667.

Robinson, L. (2017). Collective memory: September 11th now and then. Information, Communication & Society, 20(3), 319-334.

Robinson, L. (2021). Canaries in the climate coal mine: Climate change and COVID-19 as meta-crisis. First Monday.

Ross, A., & Ross, K. (Eds.). (2004). Anti-Americanism. New York: New York University Press.

Stromer-Galley, J., & Martinson, A. (2004, September). Coherence or fragmentation?: Comparing serious and social chat online. Paper presented at the Association for Internet Researchers Annual Conference, Sussex, UK.

Szersynskiand, B., & Urry, J. (2002). Cultures of cosmopolitanism. The Sociological Review, 50(4), 455-481.

Tomlinson, J. (2000). Proximity politics. Information, Communication and Society 3(3), 402-414.

Yúdice, G. (2004). Prepotencia: Latin americans respond. In Andrew Ross & Kristin Ross (Eds.), Anti-Americanism. New York: New York University Press.

Publicado
2021-06-30
Como Citar
Robinson, L. (2021). Arielism Versus Cosmopolitanism: Brazilian Reaction to 9/11/01 as Cultural Narrative and Identity Work. Interações: Sociedade E As Novas Modernidades, (40), 80-106. https://doi.org/10.31211/interacoes.40.2021.a4
Edição
Secção
Artigos